The Age of Urartu (9th century BC - 6th century BC)
Before Armenia as we know it, the Kingdom of Urartu thrived in the region. This ancient civilization, with its capital at Tushpa (modern-day Van in Turkey), was known for its advanced metallurgy, agriculture, and fortifications.
The Orontid Dynasty (6th century BC - 3rd century BC)
Following the decline of Urartu, the Orontid Dynasty emerged as the first Armenian ruling dynasty. During this period, Armenia maintained its independence while navigating the geopolitical challenges posed by neighboring empires like Persia.
The Artaxiad Era (2nd century BC - 1st century AD)
Under the Artaxiad Dynasty, Armenia reached new heights. King Tigranes the Great expanded the kingdom, making it a significant regional power. The capital, Artaxata, became a center of culture and commerce.
The Arsacid Age (1st century AD - 5th century AD)
The Arsacid Dynasty saw Armenia as a crucial player between the Roman and Parthian Empires. It was during this period that Armenia became the first nation to adopt Christianity as its state religion in 301 AD, under King Tiridates III.
The Medieval Period (5th century - 15th century)
This era witnessed the creation of the Armenian alphabet by Mesrop Mashtots, the flourishing of Armenian literature, and the establishment of the Bagratid Kingdom. However, Armenia also faced invasions from Byzantines, Arabs, and Seljuk Turks.
The Age of Foreign Dominance (16th century - 19th century)
Armenia was divided between the Ottoman and Persian Empires. Despite facing challenges, including religious pressures and heavy taxation, Armenian culture, trade, and craftsmanship thrived, especially in cities like Julfa.
The Modern Era (20th century - Present)
The early 20th century saw the tragic Armenian Genocide under the Ottoman Empire. After World War I, Armenia briefly declared independence before becoming part of the Soviet Union. In 1991, Armenia regained its independence. Since then, it has navigated geopolitical challenges, including conflicts and a recent Velvet Revolution, while making strides in IT, tourism, and cultural preservation.