A broad timeline of Angola from prehistory to present day.
Age of Early Inhabitants (25,000 BCE - 1000 CE):
Angola's initial inhabitants, the Khwe people, coexisted and integrated with Bantu-speaking groups who expanded into the area from central Africa, resulting in diverse language groups including the Umbundu, Kimbundu, and Kikongo.
Age of Centralized States (1000 - 1482):
The Bantu-speaking populations established several centralized states such as Bakongo, Lunda, and Mbundu, with the Ngola system of lineage groups later inspiring the name "Angola".
Age of Kingdoms (1390 - 1641):
The Kingdom of Kongo emerged as a dominant force in northern Angola, maintaining strong ties with Portugal. The Kingdom of Ndongo, established by the Mbundu people, declared independence from the Kingdom of Kongo.
Age of Conflict and Resistance (1641 - 1885):
This era was marked by the decline of the Kingdom of Kongo and the fierce resistance of the Kingdom of Ndongo, under Queen Njinga Mbandi Ana de Sousa, against Portuguese attempts at conquest.
Age of Colonization (1885 - 1961):
The Berlin Conference resulted in Angola falling under Portuguese rule, leading to forced labor and oppressive conditions. However, the Angolan people maintained their spirit, with the formation of the Lunda state and autonomous kingdoms in the central highlands.
Age of Revolution and Independence (1961 - 1975):
A rise against Portuguese rule led to the Angolan National Revolution and the formation of the Union of the People of Angola (UPA). The fall of the Portuguese dictatorship marked the successful fight for self-determination and Angola's independence.
Age of Civil War (1975 - 2002):
Independence was followed by a lengthy civil war, highlighting the complexities of post-colonial nation-building. The conflict eventually ended with a peace agreement, ushering in a new era of peace and reconciliation.
Modern Age (Post-2002):
In the post-war era, Angola experienced significant economic growth but faced challenges with political instability, corruption, and social inequalities. Despite these challenges, the Angolan people continue to strive for development and progress.